the counter reformation was a religious and political movement that

In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Christians began to openly criticize the Roman Catholic Church for teaching things contrary to the Bible. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds and also unfolded differently than in Germany. [citation needed]. Although the Thirty Years' War concluded with the Peace of Westphalia, the French Wars of the Counter-Reformation continued, as well as the expulsion of Protestants in Austria. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Political Dimensions. It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise, who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter Mary, Queen of Scots (then also Queen of France). Both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo. The Counter-Reformation Movement While the Protestants largely removed public art from religion and moved towards a more "secular" style of art, embracing the concept of glorifying God through depictions of nature, the Counter-Reformation Catholic Church promoted art with "sacred" or religious content. letter correspondents, visits, former students) and trade routes.[46]. Long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism. [citation needed]. seminaries should be established to train priests. The Calvinist and Lutheran doctrine of the. In Knigsberg (now Kaliningrad), in 1530, a Polish-language edition of Luther's Small Catechism was published. At that time, Mennonites and Czech Brothers came to Poland. Protestant teachings were smuggled into Spain by Spaniards such as Julin Hernndez, who in 1557 was condemned by the Inquisition and burnt at the stake. Erasmus and Louis de Berquin who was martyred in 1529), sometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. In the first decade of the Reformation, Luther's message became a movement, and the output of religious pamphlets in Germany was at its height. In the late 17th century, 150,000200,000 Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. [47] The exact moment Martin Luther realised the key doctrine of Justification by Faith is described in German as the Turmerlebnis. A number of theologians in the Holy Roman Empire preached reformation ideas in the 1510s, shortly before or simultaneously with Luther, including Christoph Schappeler in Memmingen (as early as 1513). The Deluge, a 20-year period of almost continual warfare, marked the turning point in attitudes. This unit introduces three religious-based reform movements: Protestantism in mainland Europe, Protestantism in England, and the Catholic Counter-Reformation, as well as the subsequent violence they caused. Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his apostolic brief Zelo Domus Dei. Although Zwinglianism does hold uncanny resemblance to Lutheranism (it even had its own equivalent of the Ninety-five Theses, called the 67 Conclusions), historians have been unable to prove that Zwingli had any contact with Luther's publications before 1520, and Zwingli himself maintained that he had prevented himself from reading them. Their refusal to endorse completely all of the ritual directions and formulas of the Book of Common Prayer, and the imposition of its liturgical order by legal force and inspection, sharpened Puritanism into a definite opposition movement. The spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The first two Lutheran martyrs were monks from Antwerp, Johann Esch and Heinrich Hoes, who were burned at the stake when they would not recant. Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. About one person in seventy-five was part of the Church, as a priest, monk, nun, or member of a lay order. Protestant worship services in the local language rather than Latin. The Reformation is usually dated to 31 October 1517 in Wittenberg, Saxony, when Luther sent his Ninety-Five Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences to the Archbishop of Mainz. involved the creation of new practices and policies in the Catholic Church. The term Counter-Reformationdenotes the period of Catholicrevival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IVin 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648. The citizens of Geneva became Protestant in the course of declaring independence from the town's lords, the local bishop and the Catholic Dukes of Savoy. The presence of bishoprics made the adoption of Protestantism less likely. Choose one of these movements and discuss the influence of political, spiritual, or cultural aspects of the movement as well as any subsequent strife (warfare and other forms of violence). The Counter-Reformation The Church initially ignored Martin Luther, but Luther's ideas (and variations of them, including Calvinism) quickly spread throughout Europe. Given sentence below refers to a numbered sentence in the passage. What can we conclude overall about the poet's feelings for her? The next sizable territories were the Landgraviate of Hesse (1526; at the Synod of Homberg) and the Electorate of Saxony (1527; Luther's homeland), Electoral Palatinate (1530s), and the Duchy of Wrttemberg (1534). The Counter-Reformation was a period of spiritual, moral, and intellectual revival in the Catholic Church in the 16th and 17th centuries, usually dated from 1545 (the opening of the Council of Trent) to 1648 (the end of the Thirty Years' War). The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic reforms initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. Counter Reformation, This designation for the great spiritual revival within the Church during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was used by Leopold von Ranke and g Old Catholics, Old Catholics, Christian denomination established by German Catholics who separated themselves from the Roman Catholic Church when they rejected (187 James Gibbons (american Cardinal), Gibbons, James . Arguably, the Reformation was initiated by Martin Luther's ninety-five theses on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany, in the year 1517. Numerous colleges and universities were set up throughout the country: the Jesuits and Piarists were important in this regard but there were contributions of other religious orders such as the Dominicans. With a partner, create and present to the class a radio commercial that Mr. Noakes might put together to advertise the area as a tourist attraction, SPEAKING AND LISTENING. [90], Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest (or dissent) against the edict of the Diet of Speyer (1529), were the first individuals to be called Protestants. Though not personally interested in religious reform, Francis I (reigned 15151547) initially maintained an attitude of tolerance, in accordance with his interest in the humanist movement. [24] In response to reports about the destruction and violence, Luther condemned the revolt in writings such as Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants; Zwingli and Luther's ally Philipp Melanchthon also did not condone the uprising. The outstanding success of the Catholic Counter Reformation movement, however, is the longevity in which Catholicism has stayed the dominant religion in the country. The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) refers to the widespread religious, cultural, and social upheaval of 16th-century Europe that broke the hold of the medieval Church, allowing for the development of personal interpretations of the Christian message and leading to the development of modern nation-states.It is considered one of the most important events in Western history. The term Reformation refers to a great religious reform movement in Europe during the 16th century. D. involved the creation of new practices and . Nowakowska, Natalia. The Thirty Years' War began in 1618 and brought a drastic territorial and demographic decline when the House of Habsburg introduced counter-reformational measures throughout their vast possessions in Central Europe. G. Reformation and Counter Reformation Print section Reformers of different kindsincluding John Wycliffe, John Huss (Jan Hus), and Girolamo Savonaroladenounced the moral laxity and financial corruption that had infected the church "in its members and in its head" and called for radical change. [citation needed]. The Reformation Parliament of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560, forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith. Greater entrepreneurship among religious minorities in Protestant states. [66], Bishop Richard Davies and dissident Protestant cleric John Penry introduced Calvinist theology to Wales. Four years later, at the Diet of Vsters, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. It emphasizes that the reaction to the Protestant challenge was the dominant theme of contemporary Catholicism. Religious discrimination grew on both sides and after the reign of Henry VIII, the religion of the king or queen would play a vital role in. Other Protestant movements grew up along the lines of mysticism or humanism (cf. In general, the Reformers argued that salvation in Christianity was a completed status based on faith in Jesus alone and not a process that requires good works, as in the Catholic view. For this, it took several action such as not allowing more corruption among the members, founded new religious orders to strengthen the institution. Counter-Reformation, also called Catholic Reformation or Catholic Revival, in the history of Christianity, the Roman Catholic efforts directed in the 16th and early 17th centuries both against the Protestant Reformation and toward internal renewal. Spanish Protestants who were able to flee the country were to be found in at least a dozen cities in Europe, such as Geneva, where some of them embraced Calvinist teachings. B. worked to spread the ideas and teachings of Martin Luther across Europe. Luther's influence had already reached Iceland before King Christian's decree. During the Reformation era, Moldova was repeatedly invaded. As a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants, also called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin, who wanted them to live their faith openly. The Augustinianism of the Reformers struggled against Pelagianism, a heresy that they perceived in the Catholic Church of their day. Protestant worship services in the local language rather than Latin. In your own words, restate the advice Ronsard gives Helene in the last two lines of his poem. Illustrations in the German Bible and in many tracts popularised Luther's ideas. [citation needed]. [12] In 1374, Catherine of Siena began travelling with her followers throughout northern and central Italy advocating reform of the clergy and advising people that repentance and renewal could be done through "the total love for God. Further Explanation:- The Counter-Reformation which is also known as Catholic Reformation and known as the period when Catholic Resurgence took place and it started in the response of . Why do you think he points out Walt Whitman's poem so directly? As early as 1521, the Pope had written a letter to the Spanish monarchy warning against allowing the unrest in Northern Europe to be replicated in Spain. Gudziak, Borys A. He subsequently sponsored Maximos of Gallipoli's translation of the New Testament into the Modern Greek language and it was published in Geneva in 1638. Church leaders worked to correct abuses. This massacre was perhaps the most notorious episode of religious violence of the Reformation era. Andrew P. Klager, "Ingestion and Gestation: Peacemaking, the Lord's Supper, and the Theotokos in the Mennonite-Anabaptist and Eastern Orthodox Traditions", Birgit Stolt, "Luther's Translation of the Bible. It aimed at reforming the Catholic Church's corruption and resulted in the creation of. The split between Christians in western Europe led to wars as countries struggled with new religious alliances. This was a debate over the Christian religion. The early Reformation in Germany mostly concerns the life of Martin Luther until he was excommunicated by Pope Leo X on 3 January 1521, in the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. After the establishment of the Geneva academy in 1559, Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. In 1620, the Battle of White Mountain defeated Protestants in Bohemia (now the Czech Republic) who sought to have the 1609 Letter of Majesty upheld. Cities that had higher numbers of students enrolled in heterodox universities and lower numbers enrolled in orthodox universities were more likely to adopt Protestantism. The presence of monasteries made the adoption of Protestantism less likely. These Puritan separatists were also known as "the Pilgrims". With the Counter Reformation, the church dedicated itself against protestants. Emily Michael, "John Wyclif on body and mind", Rubin, "Printing and Protestants" Review of Economics and Statistics pp. [citation needed]. It covered the following five areas: Doctrine (ideology) Ecclesiastical or Structural Reconfiguration Religious orders Spiritual Movements Political Dimensions The Counter-Reformation began after Martin Luther 's Reformation. In 1536, following his victory in the Count's War, he became king as Christian III and continued the Reformation of the state church with assistance from Johannes Bugenhagen. [83] He was the key figure of the Protestant Church of the Slovene Lands, as he was its founder and its first superintendent. An agreement reached by the Council of Trent was that. In art history, the sixteenth century sees the styles we call the High Renaissance followed by Mannerism, andat the end of the centurythe emergence of the Baroque style.Naturally, these styles are all shaped by historical forces, the most significant being the Protestant Reformation's successful challenge to the spiritual and political power of the . [35] The publication of Luther's Bible was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy in early modern Germany,[31] and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. [71][72] When Henry II took the throne in 1547, the persecution of Protestants grew and special courts for the trial of heretics were also established in the Parlement de Paris. Czech reformer and university professor Jan Hus (c. 13691415) became the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation and one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation.